Taken from the Norfolk and Western Railway Company Rules and Regulations for the Government of the Operating Department published in 1917.
Note: Train movements during the days of steam required coordination from point of origin to destination. The governing rule is Rule 99 and should be studied as this is the principle guidance for movement of trains and signalsas of 1917.
Movement of Trains
82. Time-table schedules, unless fulfilled, are in effect for twelve hours after their time at each station.
Regular trains more than twelve hours behind either their schedule arriving orleaving time at at any station lose both right and scheudle, and can thereafter proceed only as authorized by train order.
83. A train must not leave its initial station on any division, or subdivision, or a junction, or pass from double to single track, until it has been ascertained whether all trains due, which are superior, or of the same class, have arrived or left.
Stations at which train registers are located may be designated by time-table.
84. A train must not start until the proper signal is given.
84(a). A communicating signal must nbot be used to start trains unless a signal by hand or lamp also.
85. When a train of one schedule isonthe time of another scheudle of the same class in the same direction, it will proceed on its own schedule.
Trains of one schedule may pass trains of another schedule of the same class, and extras may pass and run ahead of third and fourth-class trains and extra trains.
A section may pass and run ahead of another section of the same schedule, first exchanging train orders, signals and numbers with the section to be passed. The change in sections must be reported from the next available point of communication.
86. Unless otherwise provided, an inferior train must clear the time of a superior train, inthe same direction, not less than five minutes; but must be clear at the time a first c-class train, in the same direction, is due to leave the next station in the rear where time is shown.
86 (a). Fourth-class trains may proceed ahead of third class trains and freight extras may proceed ahead of third and fourth class trains.
When overtaken at stations, local freights will permit through freights to pass promptly.
86 (b). Freight extras may stnd between the switches of passing tracks and middle tracks, within yard limits, and at coaling and water stations, without protecting against third and fourth class trains, and third and fourth class trains may stand at such places without protecting against third class trains; except incase of fog, when rule 99 must be observed.
87. An inferior train must keep out of the way of opposing superior trains and failing to cler the main track by the time required by rule must be protected as prescribed by Rule 99.
Extra trains must clear the time of opposing regular trains not less than five minutes unless otherwise provided, qnd will be governed by train orders with respect to opposing extra trains.
88. At meeting points between trains of the same class,the inferior train must clear the main track before leaving time of the superior train.
At meeting points between trains of the same class, the train in therior time-table direction must take the siding unless otherwise provided.
Trains must pull into the siding when practicable; if necessary to back in, the train must first be protected as prescribed by Rule 99, unless otherwise provided.
89. At meeting points between trains of different classes the inferior train must take the sidinjg and cleqar the superior train at least five minutes,and must pull intot he siding whenpraacticable. If necessary tobackin, the train must first be protected as prescribed by Rule 99, unless otherwise provided.
89(a) When a train turns out at a siding where no time is shown, to be passed by a superior train, it must clear the time of the superior train as shown at the first station ahead or back.
90. Trains must stop at schedule meeting stations, if the train tobe met is of the same class, unless switch is right and the track clear.
When the expected train of the same class is not found at the schedule meeting point, the superior train must approach all sidings prepared to stop, until the expected train is met.
90 (a) On a siding to be used by trains of both directions, trins must run expecting to meet opposing trains.
The normal position of crossover switches of double sidings or middle tracks is for trains to pull through from one end to theother, and a train going beyond such crossover will protect against opposing trains.
90 (b). Conductors of passenger trains must give two long and one short blast of the communicating signal approaching meetingpoints made by rule with trains of the same or superior class,and approaching all poitns at which they have telegraphic orders to meet any train or to get a “31” order; also approaching points where they hold “wait’ or “right over’ orders. This signal must be given one mile distant from such points and must be acknowledged by the engineer as per Rule 14(a).
Engineers of freight trains must signal as per Rule 14 (n). when approaching schedule meetingpoints with trains of same or superior class, and stations prearranged for or at which theyhave telegraphic orders to meet any train or to get a “31” order; also approaching points where they hold “wait” or “right over” orders. This signal must be acknowledged by the conductor as per Rule 12(b). Where such signal is not given by engineer, conductor must stop the train at once.
90(c). At meeting or passing points made by train order, conductors and engineers of respective trains will register with each other ; at meeting points made by rule, conductors and engineers of passenger trains willr egister with each other, and conductors and engineers of freight and work trains will register with each other.
90(d). Engines of freight trains must be detached therefrom before taking water or coal, but not until after train has comne to a full stop.
90(e) When a train stops on an ascending grade where itis possible for rear end to to run back,one man must be stationed on rea end. When a train stops on a descending grade, itmust immediately be protected by the appliction of sufficient hand brakes on headend to prevent it from moving.
90(f). When a train holding main track arrives at the meeting point first, employees in charge thereof must open switch for opposing train. Train and enginemen will also change switches for eachother at meeting stations when time can be saved thereby.
91. Unless some form of block signal is used, trains in the same direction must keep at least five minutes apart , except in closing up at stations. A train following a train carrying passengers must keep at least ten minutes behind it.
92. A train must not arrive at a station in advance of its schedule arriving time.
A train must not leave a station in advance of its scheduled leaving time.
94. A train which overtakes another train so disabled that it cannot proceed willpass it, if practicable, and if necessary will assume the schedule and take the train orders of the disabled train, proceed to the next available point of communication, and there report to the Superintendent. The disabled trainwill assumethe right or schedule and take the train orders of the last train with which it has exchanged, and will, when able, proceed to and report from the next available point of communication.
When a train, unable to proceed against the right or schedule of an opposing train, is overtaken between communicating stations by aninferior train or a train of the same class having right or schedule which permits it to proceed, the delayed train may, aft er proper understanding with the following train, precedes it to the next available point of communication, where it must report to the Superintendent.
When opposing trains are met under these circumstqances, it must be fully explained to them by the leading train that the expected train is following.
95. Two or more sections may be run on the same schedule.
Each section has equl time-table authority.
A train must not display signals for a following section except as prescribed by Rule 85, without orders from the Superintendent.
95(a). Yardmasters ar authorized to start all regular freight trains and direct signals to be displayed for following sections, using the prescribed form.
96. When signals displayed for a section are taken down at any point before that section arrives, the conductor, if ther ebe no other provisions, will arrange in writing with the opertor, or if there be no operator, with the switchtender, or in the absence of both, with a flagman left there for that purpose, to notify all opposing trains that the section for which signals were displayed has not arrived, and, in addition, the conductor must notify all opposing inferior trains or trins of the same class, until the fact that the signals were carried has been registered at the next register station.
97. Extra trains must not be run without orders from the Superintendent.
97(a). Work trains will be assigned working limits.
Work trains may occupy the main track when protected, as provided by Rule 99, until regular freight trains approach, and run ahead of them to first siding, but must never occupy main track within ten minutes of the time of regular passenger trains.
When working on double track, work trains will protect against the current of traffic only, unless otherwise directed. .
97(b). A train must not proceed on verbal notice from work train flagman . Written instructions must be given and flagmen must require engineers to acknowledge receipt by endorsing same
If instructions require flagman to hold all trains at adesignated point, they should be addressed to him; but if they contain instructions affecting the movement .
97 (b). A train must not proceed on verbal notice from work train flagman. Written instructions must be given e receipt by endorsing same.ctions must be given, and flagmen must require engineers to acknowledge receipt by endorsing same.
If instructions require flagman to hold all trains at a designated point, they should be addressed to him; but if they contain instructions affecting the movement of trains beyond the point at which flagman is stationed, they must be addressed to conductor and engineer of all trains affected, and such instructions must be written in manifold, a copy which must be delivered to the conductor as well as to engineer.
!nstructions to flagmen must contain only positive instructions, directing him to hold designated trains at a specified point. If work train should leave point specified before the arrival of such trains, a second flagman msut be left to give further instructions.
Conductors musr deliver to their engineers a copy of all flagging instructions given their flagmen, and will require the engineers to acknowledge receipt by endorsing a copy to be retained by the conductor. Upon this copy the conductor will also take the receipt of the flagman in the same manner, and at the close of the day, these copies of all flagging instructions given during the day and endorsed by the engineer and flagman, must be sent to the Trainmaster.
When a train is stopped by a work train flagman and engineer receives instructions affecting the movement beyond the point at which flagman is stationed, engineer will blwo signal as per Rule 14(n) and not proceed until same is acknowledged as per Rule 90(b).
97(c). When a flagman is sent from one sttion to any other for the purpose of holding a train for another train to move against it, the flagman must have written instructions in the form and manner of work train flagging instructions and will take the signature in the same manner.
The flagman is required to ride the engine to point when he is being sent, and he will show his flagging instructions to the engineer of the engine on which he is riding, and the engineer must sign his name to such instructions.
98. Trains must approach the end of double track, junctions, railroad crossings at grade, and drawbridges, with caution. Where required by rule or by law, trains must stop.
Trains using a siding must proceed with caution, expecting to find it occupied by other trains.
98(a). Entering or leaving sidings, crossing from one track to another, or in using turnouts leaving or entering double track, speed is limite dto fifteen (15) miles per hour for passenger trains,and ten 9100 miles per hour for other trains.
99. When a train stops under circumstances in which it may be overtaken by abnother train, the flagman must go back immediately with flagman’s signals a sufficient distance to ensure full protection, placing two torpedos, and when necessary, in addition, displaying lighted fusees.
When signal 14(d) or 14 (e) has been given to the flagman and safety to the train willpermit, he may return. When the conditions require, he will leave the torpedoes and lighted fusees.
The front of the train must be protected in the same way when necessary by the front brakeman or, in his absence, the fireman.
When a train is moving undercircumstqnces in which it may be overtaken by another train, the flagman must take such action as maybe necessary to insure full protection. By light of day when the view is obscured, lighted fusees must be thrown off atproper intervals.
When day signals cannot be plainly seen, owing to weather and other conditions, night signals must also be used.
Conductors and engineers are responsible for the protection of their trains.
Day signals – A red flag, torpedoes and fusees.
Night signals – A red light, a white light, torpedoes, and fusees.
99(a). Should the flagman be recalled before reaching the requireded distance , he must continue to goback a sufficient distance to insure full protection, and place two torpedoes on the rail, one rail length apart, and return to his train, unless another train is within sight or hearing.
During foggy or stormy weather , when a train is seen or heaerd approaching the flagman must display a burning red fusee, day and night, to insure stopping the train.
When on other than single track, trains are stopped unexpectedly or meet with accident, the nature or extent of which is unknown, flagmen must, without waiting to determine what racks are obstructed, go out inboth directions at once, to stop the trains on all tracks.
Bear in mind that where it is necessary to flag all it is necessary that it be done effectively, and that no excuse will justify a failure to do so.
99(b) All trains, except first class and those running on trainorder schedule, must approach all stations, water tanks, and coaling stations between stations, under control and so proceed until the track is plainly seen to be clear. The responsibility for a collision at a station, coaling station, or water tank between stations will rest with the following or incoming train. Te train, and enginemen from responsibility of portecting their trains stations , as provided in Rules 86 and 99.a
When a passenger train is setained at any of its usual stops more thqn three 93) minutes, the flagman must go back with the flagman’s signals and protect his train, as provided in Rule 99.
This gives all trains, except first-class, and those running on train order schedule, the right to stand anywhere between the outer switches of passing tracks, either on single or double track, and gives one train only the right to stand at a coaling station or water tank, outside of passing track limits, without protecting against trains which are not superior; except in case of foggy or stormy weather, when Rule 99 must be observed.
100. When the flagman goes back to protect the rar of the train, the next brakeman or the baggageman must,in the case of passenger trains,and the next brakeman in the cxase of other trains, take his place on the train.en provided, such action must be taken as will insure safety.
101. Trains must be fullly protectected against any known conditions which interfers with their safe passage at normal speed.
When conditions are found which may interfere with the safe passage of trains at normal speed and no protection has been provided, such action must be taken as will insure safety.
101(a) Messages or orders respecting the movement of trains or the condition of track or bridges, must be in writing.
102. If a train should part while in motion, trainmen must, if possible, prevent damage to the detached portions. The signals prescribed by Rules 112 (e) and 14 (f) must be given.
The detached portion must not be moved or passed until the front portion comes back.
102(a ) On double track the front portion must give the “train parted” signal to trains running inthe opposite direction, and trains receiving this signal from train on the opposite track must stop and then proceed with caution until the detached portion of the train has been passed.
103. When cars are pushed by an engine, except when shifting or making up trains in yards, a trainman must take a conspicuous postion inthe front of the leading car.
103(a). Cars must not be backed or cut loose and allowed to run over a street, highway orprivate crossing, in yard or elsewhere, without a trainman on the front of or proceding the leading car.
103(b). When within yard limits, trains must run with great care and under the control of the engineer. Trains and engines have the right to move within the yard limits by direction of the Yardmaster.
104. Switches must be left in proper position after having been used. Conductors are responsibler for the postion of the switches used by them and their trainmen, except wheere switchtenders are stationed, but, when practical, the engineer must see that the switches nearest the engine are properly set.
A switch must no be left open for a following train unless in charge of a trainman of such train.
104(a). On single track, when a main trck switch is set for a trin, the person attending such switch must go to a point at opposite side of track fromvthe switch stand and remain there until the train has passed over the switch. On double track, such person must keep away fromthe switch stand while the train is passing.
104(b). Normal position of a derailing switch is to derail.
104(c.) Running switches must not be made.
105. Both the conductor and the engineer are responsible for the safety of thetrain and the observance of the rules, and, under conditions not provided by the rules, must take every precaution for protection.ers at a station, and except where proper safeguards are provided or the movement is ed.otherwise protected, must not pass between it and the station at whcih the passengers are being received or discharg
105(a). During storms and bad weather, all trains will be handled under control, without regard to making schedule time at allpoints where slides or washouts are liable to be encountered.
106. Trains must use caution in passing a train receiving or discharging passenger at a station, and except where proper safeguards are provided or the movement is otherwise protected, must not pass between it and the station at which the passengers are being receivedcor discharged.
107. In case of doubt or uncertainty the safe course must be taken.
D-151 On double track, trains must keep tot he right unless otherwise provided.
D-152. when a trin crosses over to or obstructs another track, unless otherwise provided, it must first be protected, as prescribed by Rule 99, in both directions on tht track.
A train must not cross over when a superior train is due, except to avoid delay to superior trains following.
In permitting trains to pass after crossing over, preference must be given tot he train of greatest importance.
In our next report we will look at Part 2 – Rules for Movement by Train Orders.